Factor V is another clotting chemical. It causes clotting. Typically, Activated Protein C turns off Factor V. This means it would stop the body from clotting. The Factor V has a receptor that is the same shape as the Activated Protein C. It is like 2 puzzle pieces fitting together. Once the two pieces are together, clotting cycle stops. When you have the Factor V Leiden mutation, the Factor V Leiden puzzle pieces are shaped incorrectly. The Activated Protein C can't fit with the Factor V.
You can also be short of Protein C, but this is not related to APC resistance. Protein C deficiency is when Protein C is affected before it is activated. You don't have enough Protein C to turn off all of the Factor V in your blood.
APC resistance, Factor V Leiden, and Protein C deficiencies all are types of thrombophilia (clotting conditions) and raise the risk of blood clots. A patient can have one or more than one of these conditions, for this reason doctors will measure levels of protein C and Activated C Protein, do a APC resistance blood assay, and a genetic test for Factor V Leiden. The more conditions that are found, the higher the risk is of having a blood clot.